For data, correlation is the tendency for two measurements of an object to be linearly related.
For example, height is highly correlated to width for squares
Or, tree height is not correlated with time of day
Sometimes correlation is related to a real relationship between the measurements (like the speed of a car and the speed of a trailer connected to it) and sometimes there is a "confounding factor" that makes things much more correlated than they should be, for example height and salary for all humans (which is confounded by babies tending to be both short and unemployed)
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