애 is like ae which pronounced by opening your mouth while your tongue is low. 에 is like eh which pronounced with your mouth less opened and with your tongue more to the front of your mouth.
ㅐ & ㅔ
ㅐ = æ (phonetic symbol) e.g. a as in bad, bat or cat.
romanization: ae e.g. 개(dog) -> kae 대구(the city) -> Daegu
ㅔ = e (phonetic symbol) e.g. e as in bed, bet or red.
romanization: e e.g. 게(crab) -> Ge 메기(catfish) -> Megi
에 is "eh" like the short "e" in bed or get. It's used in words like 인터넷 to mimic the English "net" sound..because they're pretty much the same!
애 is closer to the short "a" in cat, but sounds kind of like "ae" or "ay" depending on the word. You have to open your mouth wider than normal to make this sound, as it comes from the back of your throat. Remembering that it is used as a substitute for the English short "a" in words like 팬 (fan) and 스탠포드 (Stanford) helps me pronounce the vowel more accurately.
There are no rules for the use of ㅐ or ㅔ. One must memorize the spelling of these words, since they may sound the same.
ㅐ: 개 "dog" 애기 "baby" 내 "my" 새 "birds; new" 애인 "lover" 공부한대요 They say he is studying. 그래, 갈래 Yeah, I will go. 먹을래요 I'll eat / I wanna (try to) eat.
ㅔ: 게 "crab" 세계 "world" 네 "yes," "your", "four" 세 (명) "three (persons)" -에게 "to (a person)" 갈 데 "a place to go" 공부하는데 (전화가 왔다) As I was studying (the phone rang).
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