In common(but not all), Javanese name sounds like sanskrit/javanese word or famous with 'o' letter.
• Sri, Ayu, Diah, Dewi, Saraswati, etc
• Joko, Tono, Noto, Soekarno, Soeharto, Susilo, etc
• Raden ajeng, Raden Ayu, Raden etc (if the name include the title of Raden..., it's said only for royal or nobleman)
I can't explain how to distinguish it correctly, however one of the famous typical said it is about repeating sound for first name with last name.(but maybe not in nowdays).
And also it has 'a' or 'i' letter that sound a bit of sundanese word.(This one need to train.)
• Iis, Lilis, Asep, Cecep, etc
• Yayat Muhaya, Dedi Djunaedi, Kokom Komalasari, etc.
For Acehnese, the famous mark are Teuku, Tengku, Cut.
Meanwhile Bataknese, this one is easy. Their last name have family/clan name.
• ... Nasution, ... Siregar, ... Hasibuan, ... Simanjuntak, etc
Not all people have arabic names, it really depends on their parents. hahaha...
Some people also have western name like Alexander, Clarissa, Nicky, Brian, etc
And I guess the same for another province or tribe.
Some of them have combination between traditional and international name. Or just traditional or international.
It's really a mix. :)