@kmspring In that context, the former puts more emphasis on the state of completion, while the latter puts more emphasis on the action itself. Though they have different nuance, you can often use either in the same context and make sense - it's not like the difference between saying "I run" and "I will run", where the meanings are completely different. It's one of those nuances that rules in a textbook can't explain.
In other contexts, using the present perfect indicates that an event is still under consideration. For example, say you're talking about a deadly event. You would say "Many people have died" if the event was still ongoing, or if the full scale of the event was uncertain. However, if the event was over and is being looked at in the context of the past instead of the present, you would say "Many people died".
I'm sorry if this is a complicated explanation. I wish I could explain it in Japanese. ぼくのにほんごはわるいです.