This obviously depends on the age range you're talking about.
But generally speaking I don't think we have a private-school culture here. There are esoteric systems (antroposophical for example) but not really a rich-kid's school system. At least that's what I think.
The educational levels in Israel is not that good overall. Especially in the latter years. There are attempts to rectify this but they're not overly successful.
But of course it depends on the school, area, city, neighborhood, etc.