These questions about differences between verbs and their prefixed derivates are usually very difficult to explain in short – it's just not that simple and clear-cut like some grammatical question. One would have to list all possible usages for you, compare them and lengthly discuss for you all possible fine differences in different contexts again…
I would recommend that you look the words up at the DWDS website and check out the explanations and example sentences: https://www.dwds.de/wb/verändern That website is one of the best places to look up German words on the Internet.
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