If there was a ( ً ) on the last letter of طالبة , we say it as ( talibatan ) , but because there is no diacritic on the last letter, it’s wrote and said as ( taliba ). Notice that the last letter of the word طالباً has a diacritic which is ( ً ) so that it was written as ( taliban ), also we cannot say ( taliba ) for males [ taliba is a word for females ]
For the second question, about Yawnan, Yawm
Numbers above 10 in Arabic has rule and separated into two groups:
#11, #12 : If we are counting something male, so the number gender has to be male, and so that for female Yawm = day —> in Arabic is male, so that the number 11 must be male أحد عشر يوماً
#13 - #19 : These numbers must have the opposite gender of what we are counting
ثماني عشرة طالبة طالبة female —> so the number must be male, and as it is in the example ثماني not ثمانية
ثلاثة عشر يوماً يوماً = yawman = male So the number must be female ثلاثة not ثلاث
أربع عشرة رحلة رحلة female , so the number must be male أربع not أربعة
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