They have similar meanings, but a longer one is more polite. I think that their difference is like between "Your name, please?" and "What is your name?". But I think we rarely use あなたの名前は何ですか. Perhaps I will say in such a situation: （お）名前は何と言いますか？ （お）名前を教えてください。
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Has difficulty understanding even short answers in this language.
Can ask simple questions and can understand simple answers.
Can ask all types of general questions and can understand longer answers.
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