Well in an academic setting such as school the two terms are used interchangeably.
Open your books we are going to read the next chapter
Open your books we are going to read the next lesson.
But be mindful the two words are only interchangeable because the students may be reading a textbook (physical or electronic), so the next chapter will literally be the next lesson.
In normal everyday life lesson and chapter does not mean the same thing.
A lesson in simple terms is suppose to teach you a skill using a certain procedure, while a chapter is more or less a milestone in a story or life. Thats why you will hear idioms such as "I reached a new chapter in my life" and if you are reading a book you'll say "I am on chapter 4" (to show that you hit the fourth milestone of the story.
examples with lesson
I need to go to my piano lessons
I hate my english lessons because my teacher is weird
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