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29 May 2018

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Could you please correct what I've written below?
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Godai Myouou (the five great Myouou) is a subject of faith in Buddhism and a combination of the five Myouou, which play a central role among Myouou, an honorific entity, which is specific to Mikkyou Esoteric Buddhism. Myouou, which were originally produced as independent honorific entities, are arranged around Fudou Myouou.
In images such as statues and pictures, often Fudou Myouou is placed in the center, Gozanze Myouou at the east, Gundari Myouou at the south, Daiitoku Myouou at the west and Kongouyasha Myouou at the north. Moreover, this arrangement is seen in Mikkyou (Toumitsu), which has been transmitted in the Shingon sect, but in the other Mikkyou (Daimitsu), which has been transmitted in the Tendai sect, Ususama Myouou is included in Godai Myouou instead of Kongouyasha Myouou.
Statues of the Godai Myouou were actively produced in Japan, while in China a few works were made. In Japan, Mikkyou was very popular during the first stage of the Heian period, and Godai Myouou was enshrined as the principal image of Buddha in the Godanhou ritual. As a representative example in Japan, the statue, which was made in the first stage of the Heian period and is located at the auditorium of Touji Temple, is well known (as a national treasure). It is estimated that the statues was made around 839, when the auditorium was built.

五大明王(ごだいみょうおう)は、仏教における信仰対象であり、密教特有の尊格である明王のうち、中心的役割を担う5名の明王を組み合わせたものである。本来は別個の尊格として起こった明王たちが、中心となる不動明王を元にして配置されたものである。

彫像、画像等では、不動明王が中心に位置し、東に降三世明王(ごうざんぜ - )、南に軍荼利明王(ぐんだり - )、西に大威徳明王(だいいとく - )、北に金剛夜叉明王(こんごうやしゃ - )を配する場合が多い。なお、この配置は真言宗に伝承される密教(東密)のものであり、天台宗に伝承される密教(台密)においては金剛夜叉明王の代わりに烏枢沙摩明王(うすさま - )が五大明王の一尊として数えられる。

五大明王像は日本において盛んに造像されたが、中国でも若干の遺例を見ることができる。日本では、密教が平安時代前期に隆盛したことから、五壇法の本尊として五大明王が祀られた。日本における代表的な造像例としては、京都の東寺講堂に安置されている平安時代前半の像(国宝)が知られる。その造像は、講堂が創建された承和6年(839年)頃と推定されている。
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