Q: The same Roman raid that had despoiled his home and enslaved him at twenty likewise brought disaster to his neighbors. とはどういう意味ですか?
A: "[We already said that] a raid by the Romans when he was 20 years old made him a slave and ruined his home. [Now we will tell you that] the raid was also bad for his neighbors."
Q: Roman Romanov is the director of a new Moscow museum focused on the Gulag, as Stalin's vast system of prison camps was known. とはどういう意味ですか?
A: I would say "Stalin's vast system of prison camps WAS known as the Gulag." (because it is in the past/history now)

I hope that helps- it sounds interesting! Also you are very welcome :) どういたしまして!
Q: Roman holiday とはどういう意味ですか?
A: Not positive, but I'm guessing it's just referring to a holiday, as the "Roman calendar" is the calendar we use.
Q: Roman financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on the reluctant Britons とはどういう意味ですか?
A: In this sentence there are three sections of information. Seneca was a Roman financier and a philosopher. Seneca forced the Britons to take loans they didn't really want. Then Seneca made the Britons pay back the loans.


Q: Roman Catholicism had been the state religion... と Roman Catholicism was the state religion... はどう違いますか?
A: @Anthony_Wan hard to explain but I will try!!

Had been: means it started in the past and continued for a long time. So it means that time passed and the state religion stayed the same.

Time line for had been:


Was: simply means that at one point in the past the state religion existed.

Time line for was:

Past ————————> present
Q: Roman Jews と Jewish Roman はどう違いますか?
A: Sometimes they're the same. Sometimes "Jewish people" is used to specify people who practice Judaism and "Jews" is used to specify people who are Jewish by culture and heritage, whether they practice the religion or not.


Q: it was interesting that Some Roman slaves were able to get high status, like administrators or advisors, and respect if they were well educated. to me, it was more like a company in modern life than slavery.
(is it natural?) は 英語 (アメリカ) で何と言いますか?
Q: (Roman and Romantic という単語同士が) 似ていてとてもごっちゃになる! は 英語 (アメリカ) で何と言いますか?
A: 英語を学ぶにはこのサイトをお勧めします
Q: If I write down Roman numbers , English/ American understand It? Like the following examples: V (in Latin it means 5) or X (10)
or L (50) and so は 英語 (アメリカ) で何と言いますか?
A: Roman numeration is understood by both BrItish and American English-speakers. That being said, you can always find someone who doesn’t understand.
Q: Gaudí's Roman Catholic faith intensified during his life and religious images appear in many of his works は 英語 (アメリカ) で何と言いますか?
A: QAの全文をご確認ください


Q: Why do you attach 'the' definitive to 'Roman Empire'?

is it because of the 'empire' part, or does it leave some kind of ambiguity to just say 'Roman Empire'?
A: It's standard to always write "The XX Empire", so it's consistent, but I wouldn't say that it's necessary, exactly. You're right that it would be understood either way. Another example (but not consistent) is that the country of Holland is also called *The* Netherlands, and there isn't really a logical reason for that either. 😅 Just strange English things.

The British Empire
The Empire of Japan
The Roman Empire
The Ottoman Empire
The Mongol Empire
Q: Every Roman emperor has put much energy to win civilians' support. この表現は自然ですか?
A: × Every Roman emperor has put much energy to win civilians' support.
✓ Every Roman emperor has put in a lot of energy to win the civilians' support.

Q: “See in Roman numerals system, Zero isn’t really a value in and out itself.” What is the meaning of “in and out” here?
A: “in and out” 是一个错误,应该是 “in and of”.

“In and of itself” = on its own, by itself, inherently
Q: The Roman empire had several powerful legions along its history, but Julio Caesar's legion was without a doubt the most powerful and magnificent legion that has ever existed. It was a true war machine. この表現は自然ですか?
A: The only thing to fix would be a mistake in past-present tense. Try:

The Roman empire had several powerful legions along its history, but Julio Caesar's legion was, without a doubt, the most power and magnificent legion that had ever existed. It was a true war machine.